FRP - CIVIL STRUCTURES

FRP - CIVIL STRUCTURES Pedestrian Bridges Highway Bridges Seismic Retrofit Columns Bridge Strengthening Bridge Repairs FRP TECHNO...

FRP - CIVIL STRUCTURES

Pedestrian Bridges
Highway Bridges
Seismic Retrofit Columns
Bridge Strengthening
Bridge Repairs

FRP TECHNOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS

High Strength
High Resistance to Corrosion and Chemical
High Resistance to Elevated Temperature
High Resistance to Abrasion
Toughness
Fatigue
Light Weight

FRP TECHNOLOGY ADVANTAGES

Ease in Fabrication, Manufacturing, Handling, and Erection
Year-Round Construction
Short Project Time Delivery
High Performance
Durability (Jury Still Out)
Excellent Strength-to-Weight Ratio

FRP TECHNOLOGY DISADVANTAGES -1

High First Cost
Creep and Shrinkage
Potential for Environmental Degradation (Alkalis’ Attack, UV Radiation Exposure, Moisture Absorption, etc.)
Consistency of Material Properties
Global and Local Buckling
Aerodynamic Instability With Lightweight
Requires Highly Trained Specialists
Lack of Standards and Design Guides
Limited Joining and Connection Technology (Adhesive joints, fasteners)

FRP TECHNOLOGY PUBLIC CONCERNS

Fire/Flame Resistance
Smoke Toxicity
Fuel Spills
Vandalism/Theft
Inspectibility
Repairability

MANUFACTURING PROCESS COMMON TO CIVIL APPLICATIONS

Pultrusion
Filament Winding
Layup

WHAT IS FRP COMPOSITES COMPONENTS

Fiber Reinforcement
Resin Matrix
***(Fiber-Matrix Interphases)***
Fillers
Additives

FRP TECHNOLOGY MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Fiber Types
Fiber Orientations
Fiber Architecture
Fiber Volume (30-70%)

FRP TECHNOLOGY FIBER TYPES

Glass
Aramid
Carbon (Graphite)
Boron
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (Available in Japan)

FRP TECHNOLOGY FIBER OREIENTATION

0 Degree (Parallel - Warp)
90 Degrees (Transverse - Weft)
Between 0 and 90 Degrees (Biased)
(e.g. 0/45/90/-45/0)

FRP TECHNOLOGY FIBER ARCHITECTURE

Braiding (2D & 3D)
Knitting
Weaving
Stitched
Chopped

FRP TECHNOLOGY CARBON FIBER

Three Polymer Precursors:
*Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)
*Rayon
*Pitch
Anisotropic Materials
Linear Elastic to Failure
Failure by Rupture

FRP TECHNOLOGY ARAMID FIBER

Aromatic Polyamides
Kevlar 29
Kevlar 49
Anisotropic Materials
Linear Elastic to Failure
Failure by Rapture

FRP TECHNOLOGY RESIN SYSTEM

Thermoplastics (melts when heated, solidifies when cooled, no permanent curing)
Thermosets (cures permanently by irreversible cross linking at elevated temp.)

FRP TECHNOLOGY RESIN FORMULATIONS

Viscosity
Reactivity
Resiliency
High Deflection Temperature (HDT)




FRP TECHNOLOGY RESIN TYPES

Unsaturated Polyesters
Epoxies
Vinyl Esters
Polyurethanes
Phenolics

FRP - RESIN SYSTEM UNSATURATED POLYESTERS

75% Resins Used in USA
Condensation Polymerization of Dicarboxylic Acids & Dihydric Alcohols
Contains Maleic Anhydride or Fumaric Acid
Dimensional Stability
Affordable Cost
Ease in Handling, Processing, & Manufacturing
High Corrosion Resistant & Fire Retardants
Best Value for Performance & Strength

FRP - RESIN SYSTEM EPOXIES

Glycidyl Ethers and Amines
Customized Properties
Limited Workability
Sensitive to Curing Agents
High Performance
High First Cost

FRP - RESIN SYSTEM VINYL ESTERS

Good Workability
Fast Curing
High Performance
Toughness
Excellent Corrosion Resistance

FRP - RESIN SYSTEM POLY URETHANES

Polyisocyanate & Polyol
Reaction or Reinforced Injection Molding Process
High Performance
Toughness
Excellent Corrosion Resistence

FRP TECHNOLOGY FILLERS

Control Composites’ Cost
Improved Mechanical Properties
Improved Chemical Properties
Reduced Creep & Shrinkage
Low Tensile Strength
Fire Retardant & Chemical Resistant

FRP TECHNOLOGY FILLER TYPES

Calcium Carbonate
Kaolin
Alumina Trihydrate
Mica Feldspar
Wollastonite
Silica, Talc, Glass

FRP TECHNOLOGY ADDITIVES

Improved Material Properties
Aesthetics
Enhanced Workability
Improved Performance

FRP TECHNOLOGY ADDITIVE TYPES

Catalysts
Promoters
Inhibitors
Coloring Dyes
Releasing Agents
Antistatic Agents
Foaming Agents



COMMENTS

Name

• compression couplers,1,• tension couplers,1,1997 UBC,1,56 days Concrete test,1,ADDICRETE,1,additives,1,administer computer networks,1,admixtures,1,Advises Subcontractors,1,alignment of the shafts,1,Allowable Stress Design,1,Anchor Bolts,1,Annual depreciation expense,1,approval of drawings,1,ASD,1,Assist in Quantity,1,Assist the Project Manager,1,Authority to Delegate,1,AutoCAD,2,AutoCAD to Etabs,1,bars,1,bars in a bundle,1,BASE ISOLATED DAMAGE,1,base plates,1,basement wall,1,Basic soil properties,1,basic wind speed,1,Beams Inspection Checklist,1,Bearing capacity,1,bell pile bottom,1,bent bars,1,Bitomeneous,1,Bowels,1,breaching spillway,1,BS 8007:1987,1,BS5400,1,BS6399,1,BS8007,1,BS8110-1997,1,buildings height,1,CALCULATION OF CRACK WIDTH,1,Canary Island Dates,1,cantilever footing,1,Carbon Equivalent,1,carbon test,1,cast in-situ,1,cast-in-place anchors,1,cast-in-place concrete pile,1,Cause-and-effect diagram,1,Chairs,1,Check sheets,1,Chemical Admixtures,1,Chute spillway,1,CIRIA,2,CIRIA Report 136,1,civil structures,1,Coal ash,1,collars,1,Collision Load,1,columns,3,columns and walls,1,Combination of combinations,1,combinations in Etabs,1,Company's Health,1,Compliant Towers platforms,1,compression test,1,compressive strength,1,concrete,4,concrete block buildings,1,CONCRETE IN HOT WEATHER,1,CONCRETE MOMENT FRAME,1,concrete pile,1,Concrete Rebound Hammer,1,Concrete Shrinkage,1,Concrete Slump Test,1,concrete walls,1,Construction and Stressing,1,construction drawings,1,Construction joints,1,Construction Manual,1,continuous external restraint,1,continuous slabs,1,contract planresponsibilities of QA/QC,1,Contracts Manager,1,cooling pipe system,1,Corner reinforcement,1,Cost Plus Award Fee,1,Cost-reimbursable,1,COUPLED SHEAR WALL,1,Couplers,1,couplers in columns,1,CP3,1,CRACK WIDTH,1,Creep,1,CURING,1,day to day work progress,1,Dead load and Self-weight,1,Deck,1,Deflection,1,Deflection discussion,1,Deflection in Prestressed,1,deformed bars,1,Demolition,1,Design Requirements,1,designing a tall building,1,Designs projects,1,detailed review,1,detailing and implementation,1,Development length,1,different codes in one structure,1,Differential elastic shortening,1,dimensions,1,DIRECT TENSION,1,Draftsman responsibilities,1,drawings and specifications,1,Drift Limitations,1,Drop beams,1,dust loads,1,dust on roof,1,Dynamic Pile Head,1,dynamic wind pressure,1,Early age Crackwidth,1,early strength cement,1,Earth pressure,1,Earthquake Design,1,earthquakes,1,EBT adhesive sealant,1,Elastic Shortening,1,electrical and manual,1,elevator requirement,1,Elevators,1,Encasement of pipes,1,end plate connection,1,Energy dissipater,1,engineering design,1,Environmental procedures,1,epoxy compound,1,Epoxy grout,1,equipment performance records,1,Error and warning free model,1,Errors in Etabs,1,establishment of construction,1,Estimating Flow Standard,1,Etabs,2,Etabs Design,1,ETABS to ROBOT,1,excavation,1,Excavation slopes,1,external concrete surfaces,1,Finishing of slip-forms,1,Fire,1,Firm Fixed Price,1,Fixed platforms,1,Fixed Price Incentive Fee,1,Fixed Price with Economic,1,Flexible Joints,1,Flexible pipes,1,floors,1,Flow charts,1,Fly ash,1,Foundation analysis,1,Foundations,1,framed openings,1,Free over fall spillway,1,FRP,1,FRP advantages,1,FRP disadvantages,1,FRP technology,1,full length bar,1,General Notes,1,Geophone sensor,1,Hammer Schmidt Type,1,HDP,1,Health and Safety procedures,1,High Early Strength Portland Cement,1,High quality additives,1,high rise / tower,1,highly effective,1,Histograms,1,hooked bars,1,Horizontal steel,1,Human Comfort,1,hydraulic,1,hydraulic jump,1,Hydraulic resistance,1,Hydro technical tunnels,1,IBC/ASCE,1,immediate reaction,1,importance of Plasticizers,1,Importing,1,IMS,1,Inspection Checklist,6,INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION,1,inter-story drift,1,interest payments,1,IT engineer responsibilities,1,Jack-up Platforms,1,Jacking Systems,1,Japanese code for escalators,1,Kicker,1,largest oil platform,1,lateral forces,1,lateral loads,1,LFD,1,lifting hooks,1,Load Factor Design,1,load resisting elements,1,load-bearing wall,1,Loading,1,Loads and Resistances,1,LRFD,1,Maintain contract database,1,Maintains close scrutiny,1,maintenance cost,1,Makes recommendations,1,manage,1,manufacturer,1,manufacturing process,1,Maximum allowable slopes,1,maximum deflection,1,maximum difference,1,maximum pressure,1,maximum reinforcement,1,maximum temperature,1,Mechanical couplers,1,Mechanical damage,1,membrane floors,1,Metal sleeves swaged,1,Method of dissipation,1,METHOD OF TESTING,1,Method statement,2,Mineral Admixtures,1,minimize the seepage,1,minimizing the cost,1,minimum eccentricity moment,1,Minimum reinforcement,1,mixing concrete,1,modelling in Etabs,1,Monitors performance,1,monthly invoice,1,Monthly Safety Report,1,multi-storey buildings,1,multistory buildings,1,Natural frequency,1,Necessity of tunnel lining,1,new structural systems,1,O&M,1,of concrete block buildings,1,office buildings,1,Office Tall Buildings,1,offshore platforms,1,oil platform,1,oil rigs,1,on beams from loaded slab can be achieved by defining the slab as a membrane,1,opening reinforcement,1,ordinary Portland cement,2,Other bars,1,Overlap,1,overlap locations,1,Oversee and review,1,palm trees weight,1,parallel threads,1,parapet,1,Perform data backups,1,Performance Bonds,1,Performs design drafting,1,physical properties,1,Pile Dynamic Test,1,Pile Head Preparation,1,Pile Integrity Testing,1,Pile Shaft Overbreak,1,Pindos,1,Pipe Classifications,1,PLACING,1,Placing boom,1,Plan and prioritize work,1,Planning Engineer,1,plant and equipment,1,Plant and Equipment Engineer,1,plaster walls,1,Platform types,1,pneumatic,1,Post-Tensioning Grouting,1,Pour strip,1,precast panel,1,Prepares monthly report,1,Pressure Ratings,1,Prestressed Concrete,1,prevent uplift,1,principal load resisting,1,procedure of fixing,1,Project Coordinator,1,Project manager assignment,1,project schedule,1,project's compliance,1,Provides technical expertise,1,provisional Sum,1,PT slabs,2,pump,1,PVC,1,QA,1,QA/QC Engineer,1,QC,1,Quality,1,raft foundations,1,Raft Slab Inspection Checklist,1,reaction as an engineer,1,rebound hammer,1,recommended tests,1,Recorded experience,1,Reinforced concrete columns,1,reinforcement,1,Reinforcement at openings,1,reinforcing bars,2,reinforcing-steel,1,Residential Tall Buildings,1,RESISTING SYSTEMS DAMAGE,1,Retaining Wall Inspection Checklist,1,Retaining walls,1,retarder,1,Review contract documents,1,review contracts,1,review expiring contracts,1,Reviews accidents,1,reviews contract drafts,1,Reviews shop drawings,1,Reviews the terms and conditions,1,Rice husk ash,1,rigid foundation,1,Rigid pipes,1,Road layers,1,Robot Millennium,1,Roles and Responsibilities,8,Roller bucket,1,Rough Order of Magnitude,1,round deformed bars,1,Rules of thumb,1,saddle beams,1,Safe 14,1,Safety Manager,1,sample letter,3,sand,1,SAP2000,1,Schmidt Hammer,1,Seismic Design Principle,1,SEISMIC RESISTING SYSTEMS,1,seismic zone factor,1,Semi-structural welding,1,Semi-submersible Platforms,1,Senior Architect,1,Senior Contracts Engineer,1,Sequential Loading,1,Set work program,1,Seven Basic Quality Tools,1,shallow foundation,1,Shell,1,Ship-board Rigs platforms,1,shortening of columns,1,Shrinkage,1,Shrinkage and Temperature,1,Side channel spillway,1,simply supported,1,Site engineer responsibilities,1,site facilities,1,SK Gosh,1,Ski-jump,1,slab assignment,1,slabs,2,Slabs Inspection Checklist,1,slings,1,slip forms,1,Slip-form,1,Slip-form construction,1,slip-forming,1,smooth finish,1,soffit slabs,1,Soil classification,1,Soil Sloping Systems,1,speed of erection,1,Spring Force,1,standard size bolts,1,Static load,1,Static load multiplier,1,steel beam,1,Steel Columns,1,steel quantity,1,steel stress,1,Stiffness,1,stiffness and resistance,1,stilling basin,1,Strap footing,1,Strength and Stability,1,Stress on soil in etabs,1,Stressing sequence,1,Striking formworks,2,Strip footing,1,Strong Column,1,structural construction process,1,structural design spreadsheet,1,Structural Details,1,structural engineers,1,Structural Provisions,1,structural purposes pipes,1,strukts spreadsheets,1,Subcontract Agreement,1,Super-plasticizers,2,surfactants,1,Tack welding,1,Tall Building,1,tall buildings,1,Tallest buildings,1,taper-cut threads,1,Tdr Test Accuracy,1,Technical Engineer,1,technical submittals,1,test hammer,1,Test on Piles,1,Test specimens,1,TESTING,1,Thermal Expansion,1,threaded rods with nuts,1,time for completion,1,Top bars,1,torsion-load test,1,Total Shortening,1,tower cranes,1,Tower cranes installation,1,Transform AUTOCAD drawings,1,trough spillway,1,Trump Tower,1,Tunnel,1,tunnel lining,1,type of concrete,1,Types of contracts,1,types of foundation,1,Types of shallow foundation,1,Types of spillways,1,Types of waterproofing,1,Ultra Ever Dry,1,Uniform loads Safe 14,1,uniform thickness,1,Uplift Force,1,uplift test lateral-load test,1,vertical load resisting,1,Voided Biaxial Slabs,1,wall openings,1,walls,2,Warning,1,Water curing,1,Weak Beam Concept,1,Wedge locking sleeves,1,weekly and monthly program,1,weekly and monthly report,1,Welding of reinforcement,1,Welding procedures,1,What teachers never taught us,1,wind and seismic,1,Wind loads,1,Wind simulation,1,WOOD SHEAR WALL,1,workability,2,Workshop repair,1,
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strukts: FRP - CIVIL STRUCTURES
FRP - CIVIL STRUCTURES
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