Bolts and threaded rods with nuts can be used for both axially loaded base plates or base plates with moments. Threaded rods with nuts are used when the length and size required for the specific design exceed those of standard size bolts.
Failure of bolts or threaded rods with nuts occurs when the tensile capacities of the bolts are reached. Failure is also considered to occur when a cone of concrete is pulled out from the pedestal. This cone pull-out type of failure is depicted schematically as shown above. The failure cone is assumed to radiate out from the bolt head or nut at an angle of 45 with tensile failure occurring along the surface of the cone at an average stress of 4 SQRT (f'c) where f'c is the compressive strength of concrete in psi. The load that will cause this cone pull-out failure is given by the product of this average stress and the projected area of the cone Ap (Marsh and Burdette 1985a,b). The design of anchor bolts is thus governed by the limit states of tensile fracture of the anchors and cone pull-out.