The

American Concrete Institute (ACI) has published Building Code Requirements for

Structural Concrete (ACI 318-11) and Commentary (ACI 318R-11) and it has been

adopted by the 2012 International Building Code (IBC).Although the changes from

ACI 318-08 to ACI 318-11 are not as those between ACI 318-05 and ACI 318-08,

some of the changes in the latest cycle are definitely significant.

Chapter 3 � Materials

ASTM A615 “Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon Steel Bars for

Concrete Reinforcement” and ASTM A706 “Standard Specification for Low-Alloy

Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement” have both added a

Grade 80 reinforcement, having a minimum yield strength of 80,000 psi (550 MPa).

However, the use of this reinforcement is not permitted by Section 21.1.5 in

special moment frames and special structural walls.

Chapter 7 � Details of Reinforcement

- In new Section 7.10.5.4, rigorous detailing requirements for complete

circular ties around longitudinal bars located around the perimeter of a

circular column are given. - New requirements have been added in Sections 7.12.3.2 through 7.12.3.5

concerning temperature and shrinkage reinforcement in post-tensioned slabs.

Chapter 9 � Strength and Serviceability Requirements

APPENDIX C � Alternative Load and Strength Reduction Factors

The strength design load combinations in Sections 9.2 and C.9.2 have been

revised to be fully consistent with those of ASCE/SEI 7-10.

Chapter 11 � Shear and Torsion

In Section 11.7.4.2, the area of shear reinforcement parallel to the

longitudinal axis of the beam is now required to be not less than 0.0025bws2,

rather than 0.0015bws2, wherebw is web width ands2 is center-to-center spacing

of longitudinal shear reinforcement.

Chapter 18 � Prestressed Concrete

- The permissible stress of 0.82fpy (fpy = specified yield strength of

prestressing steel) but not greater than 0.74fpu (fpu = specified tensile

strength of prestressing steel) in prestressing steel immediately upon

prestress transfer in Section 18.5.1 has been eliminated based upon

practical experience with post-tensioned concrete members. - The formulas for estimating friction loss in post-tensioning tendons have

been eliminated from Section 18.6.2.1 as being text-book material.

Chapter 21 � Earthquake-Resistant Structures

- In Section 21.3.3 of ACI 318-08, the required shear strength of a column of

an intermediate moment frame was permitted to be calculated as the maximum

shear obtained from design load combinations that includeE, withE assumed to

be twice that prescribed by the general building code. In the new Section

21.3.3.2 of ACI 318-11, the multiplier of two has been increased to the

overstrength factor, ?0= 3, of the intermediate moment frame. - In ACI 318-08 Section 21.5.3.2, the spacing of hoops within the region of

potential plastic hinging at each end of a special moment frame beam could

not exceed the smallest of: 1. d/4; - eight times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal bars;
- 24 times the diameter of the hoop bars; and
- 12 inches. In ACI 318-11 Section 21.5.3.2,

Item (2) has been changed to six times the diameter of the smallest primary

flexural reinforcing bars excluding longitudinal skin reinforcement required by

Section 10.6.7. Item (3) has been deleted. Item (4) now is 6 inches. For deeper

beams, this is a significant decrease in the spacing of confinement

reinforcement in regions of potential plastic hinging.3. New Section 21.6.3.2

requires that in columns with circular hoops, the minimum number of longitudinal

bars be six for effective confinement.4. Section 21.9.6.4(e), applicable to

special shear walls with special boundary elements, has been expanded to:

“Horizontal reinforcement in the wall web shall extend to within 6 in (150mm) of

the end of the wall. Reinforcement shall be anchored to develop fy in tension

using standard hooks or heads. Where the confined boundary element has

sufficient length to develop the horizontal web reinforcement, and *Avfy/s* of

the web reinforcement is not greater than *Ashfyt/s* of the boundary element

transverse reinforcement parallel to the web reinforcement, it shall be

permitted to terminate the web reinforcement without a standard hook or head.”

See Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Development of wall horizontal reinforcement in confined boundary element5.

Door and window openings in shear walls often lead to narrow vertical wall

segments, many of which have been defined as wall piers in the IBC and in the

UBC before it. Wall pier provisions are now included in Section 21.9.8 of ACI

318-11. The dimensions defining wall piers are given in Section 2.2.Shear

failures of wall piers have been observed in previous earthquakes. The intent of

Section 21.9.8 is to prescribe detailing that would result in flexural failure

preceding shear failure in wall piers. The provisions apply to wall piers

considered part of the seismic force-resisting system (SFRS). Wall piers

considered not part of the SFRS need to be designed by Section 21.13.Wall piers

having (lw/bw) ? 2.5 behave essentially as columns. Section 21.9.8.1 requires

them to be detailed like columns. Alternative requirements are provided for wall

piers having (lw/bw) > 2.5.

Wall piers at the edge of a wall are addressed in Section 21.9.8.2. Under

in-plane shear, inclined cracks can propagate into segments of the wall directly

above and below the wall pier. Shear failure within the adjacent wall segments

can occur unless sufficient reinforcement is provided in those segments (Figure

R21.9.8).

An excellent new Table R21.9.1 in the Commentary effectively summarizes the new

requirements.

APPENDIX D � Anchoring to Concrete

- The onerous nature of seismic design imposed by ACI 318-08 Section D.3.3 on

anchors in Seismic Design Category (SDC) C or higher is alleviated and the

seismic design of anchors is made considerably more reasonable. Where the

tension component of the strength-level earthquake force applied to the

anchor or group of anchors is equal to or less than 20 percent of the total

factored anchor tensile force, the seismic design requirements of Section

D.3.3 to prevent a brittle tension failure of anchors simply do not apply

any more (Section D.3.3.4.1). A similar provision concerning shear is

included in Section D.3.3.5.1.

Where the seismic component of the total factored tension demand on an anchor or

a group of anchors exceeds 20 percent, the following four options have been made

available:

(a) Ensure failure of ductile steel anchor ahead of the brittle failure of

concrete (Section D.3.3.4.3(a)). This now involves the new concept of a stretch

length.

(b) Design anchor for the maximum tension force that can be transmitted by a

ductile metal attachment after considering the overstrength and strain hardening

of the attachment (D.3.3.4.3(b)).

(c) Design for the maximum tension force that can be transmitted by a

non-yielding attachment (Section D.3.3.4.3(c)).

(d) Design for the maximum tension force obtained from design load combinations

involvingE, with *E *multiplied by ?0 (Section D.3.3.4.3(d)).

For an anchor or a group of anchors subject to shear, three options similar to

(b), (c), and (d) above have been made available. Unlike ACI 318-08, ductile

anchor failure in shear is not an option anymore.

- The maximum anchor diameter for which the provisions of Sections D.5.2 and

D.6.2 can be applied to calculate the concrete breakout strength in tension

and shear, respectively, has been increased from 2 inches to 4 inches

(Section D.4.2.2). This expansion is based on the results of new tests using

larger diameter anchors. However, a new Eq. D-34 has also been introduced

for a lower-bound value of basic concrete breakout strength for a single

anchor in shear,Vb, to account for the larger diameter anchors.

ACI 318-08 also imposed a 25-inch limitation on anchor embedment depth for the

calculation of concrete breakout strength using the provisions of Appendix D.

This limitation was effectively removed by Section 1908.1.10 of the 2009 IBC and

is now gone from ACI 318-11.

- An adhesive anchor is defined in Section D.1 as a post-installed anchor,

inserted into hardened concrete with an anchor hole diameter not greater

than 1.5 times the anchor diameter, that transfers loads to the concrete by

bond between the anchor and the adhesive, and bond between the adhesive and

the concrete. Failure modes and the corresponding nominal strengths for

adhesive anchors are defined, along with requirements for testing and

evaluation of adhesive anchors for use in cracked concrete or subject to

sustained loads. Failure modes postulated for other anchors apply to

adhesive anchors as well, except that the calculation of strength governed

by anchor pullout is replaced by the evaluation of adhesive bond strength in

accordance with Section D.5.5. The provisions for adhesive anchors include

criteria for overhead anchors, seismic design requirements, installation and

inspection requirements, and certification of adhesive anchor installers.

Separately, a certification program has been established.