FRP – CIVIL STRUCTURESPedestrian Bridges

Highway Bridges
Seismic Retrofit Columns
Bridge Strengthening
Bridge Repairs

FRP TECHNOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS
High Strength
High Resistance to Corrosion and Chemical
High Resistance to Elevated Temperature
High Resistance to Abrasion
Toughness
Fatigue
Light Weight

FRP TECHNOLOGY ADVANTAGES
Ease in Fabrication, Manufacturing, Handling, and Erection
Year-Round Construction
Short Project Time Delivery
High Performance
Durability (Jury Still Out)
Excellent Strength-to-Weight Ratio

FRP TECHNOLOGY DISADVANTAGES -1
High First Cost
Creep and Shrinkage
Potential for Environmental Degradation (Alkalis� Attack, UV Radiation Exposure,
Moisture Absorption, etc.)
Consistency of Material Properties
Global and Local Buckling
Aerodynamic Instability With Lightweight
Requires Highly Trained Specialists
Lack of Standards and Design Guides
Limited Joining and Connection Technology (Adhesive joints, fasteners)

FRP TECHNOLOGY PUBLIC CONCERNS
Fire/Flame Resistance
Smoke Toxicity
Fuel Spills
Vandalism/Theft
Inspectibility
Repairability

MANUFACTURING PROCESS COMMON TO CIVIL APPLICATIONS
Pultrusion
Filament Winding
Layup

WHAT IS FRP COMPOSITES COMPONENTS
Fiber Reinforcement
Resin Matrix
(Fiber-Matrix Interphases)
Fillers
Additives

FRP TECHNOLOGY MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
Fiber Types
Fiber Orientations
Fiber Architecture
Fiber Volume (30-70%)

FRP TECHNOLOGY FIBER TYPES
Glass
Aramid
Carbon (Graphite)
Boron
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (Available in Japan)

FRP TECHNOLOGY FIBER OREIENTATION
0 Degree (Parallel – Warp)
90 Degrees (Transverse – Weft)
Between 0 and 90 Degrees (Biased)
(e.g. 0/45/90/-45/0)

FRP TECHNOLOGY FIBER ARCHITECTURE
Braiding (2D & 3D)
Knitting
Weaving
Stitched
Chopped

FRP TECHNOLOGY CARBON FIBER
Three Polymer Precursors:
*Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)
*Rayon
*Pitch
Anisotropic Materials
Linear Elastic to Failure
Failure by Rupture

FRP TECHNOLOGY ARAMID FIBER
Aromatic Polyamides
Kevlar 29
Kevlar 49
Anisotropic Materials
Linear Elastic to Failure
Failure by Rapture

FRP TECHNOLOGY RESIN SYSTEM
Thermoplastics (melts when heated, solidifies when cooled, no permanent curing)
Thermosets (cures permanently by irreversible cross linking at elevated temp.)

FRP TECHNOLOGY RESIN FORMULATIONS
Viscosity
Reactivity
Resiliency
High Deflection Temperature (HDT)

FRP TECHNOLOGY RESIN TYPES
Unsaturated Polyesters
Epoxies
Vinyl Esters
Polyurethanes
Phenolics

FRP – RESIN SYSTEM UNSATURATED POLYESTERS
75% Resins Used in USA
Condensation Polymerization of Dicarboxylic Acids & Dihydric Alcohols
Contains Maleic Anhydride or Fumaric Acid
Dimensional Stability
Affordable Cost
Ease in Handling, Processing, & Manufacturing
High Corrosion Resistant & Fire Retardants
Best Value for Performance & Strength

FRP – RESIN SYSTEM EPOXIES
Glycidyl Ethers and Amines
Customized Properties
Limited Workability
Sensitive to Curing Agents
High Performance
High First Cost

FRP – RESIN SYSTEM VINYL ESTERS
Good Workability
Fast Curing
High Performance
Toughness
Excellent Corrosion Resistance

FRP – RESIN SYSTEM POLY URETHANES
Polyisocyanate & Polyol
Reaction or Reinforced Injection Molding Process
High Performance
Toughness
Excellent Corrosion Resistence

FRP TECHNOLOGY FILLERS
Control Composites� Cost
Improved Mechanical Properties
Improved Chemical Properties
Reduced Creep & Shrinkage
Low Tensile Strength
Fire Retardant & Chemical Resistant

FRP TECHNOLOGY FILLER TYPES
Calcium Carbonate
Kaolin
Alumina Trihydrate
Mica Feldspar
Wollastonite
Silica, Talc, Glass

FRP TECHNOLOGY ADDITIVES
Improved Material Properties
Aesthetics
Enhanced Workability
Improved Performance

FRP TECHNOLOGY ADDITIVE TYPES
Catalysts
Promoters
Inhibitors
Coloring Dyes
Releasing Agents
Antistatic Agents
Foaming Agents