of all possible forces acting on a dam are as follows;**Self weight of the dam:

It is the weight of the dam due to the action of the gravity and always acts
downward direction through CG of the body. The self weight of the dam depends
upon the specific weight of the construction materials.

Hydrostatic pressure:

It is the pressure exerted by the fluid of the dam body and always acts
perpendicular to the contact surface. The resultant pressure acts through the
centre of pressure.

Uplift pressure:

It is pressure exerted by the fluid on the dam surface from the underneath and
always acts towards the upward direction. The water enters in to the dam body
through the pores, cracks, fissures and causes the uplift pressure. The uplift
force will reduce the effective weight of the dam and depends the contact area
where it acts. The magnitude of the uplift pressure will depend upon the types
of the foundation, drainage provision, provision of the cutoff walls, grouting

Earthquake pressure:

It is the pressure exerted on the dam body due to acceleration wave of the
earthquake. The wave acceleration direction may be vertical, horizontal as well
as in inclined direction too.

Wind pressure:

It is the pressure exerted by the wind on the exposed surface of the dam
surface. The wind pressure depends upon the intensity of the wind velocity.

Wave pressure:

It is the pressure exerted by the action of the wave on the dam surface. The
wave force depends upon the height of wave. The height of wave in the reservoir
depends upon the velocity of the wind and the fetching height (distance from the
dam up to the end of backwater curve).

Silt pressure:

It is the pressure exerted by the silt accumulated behind the dam and could be
evaluated through the Rankine�s active earth pressure theory.

Ice pressure:

It is the pressure exerted by the ice on the dam surface. It depends upon the
thickness, temperature fluctuation and restrain of the resisting force.