Concrete Properties

The Properties of Concrete are its characteristics or basic qualities. The four main properties of concrete are: WORKABILITY COHESIVENESS STRENGTH and DURABILITY Concrete has three different states: PLASTIC SETTING HARDENING In each state it has different properties.CONCRETE STATESPlastic State When the concrete is first mixed it is like bread dough . It is soft and can be …

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Concrete Materials

CONCRETE is made by mixing: CEMENT WATER COARSE AND FINE AGGREGATES ADMIXTURES (if required). The aim is to mix these materials in measured amounts to make concrete that is easy to: TRANSPORT PLACE COMPACT FINISH and which will set, and harden, to give a strong and durable product. The amount of each material (ie cement, water and aggregates) affects …

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Post-Tensioned Transfer Plates

Pretressing Systems 7-wire strand prestressing system – since 1954 Ultimate Tensile Strength,  GUTS = 1770 N/mm2 / 1860  N/mm2 Multi-strand  post-tensioning system Multi-strand anchor head with wedges Pre-Tensioning vs. Post-Tensioning  Design Advantages Shallow structural depth Bigger column-free spans Less concrete Reduction in foundation loads Better deflection control Better crack control Design Considerations Flexural & punching shear Lateral …

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Dynamic analysis using SAP2000

Analysis of 2D Frame with Static Loading Response Spectrum Loading Time History Loading Prepared by: Eng. Tarik El Salakawy Free download of this presentation is available here:  [download id=”18″]

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions

Earthquake Protective Design Philosophical Issues High probability of “Failure” “Failure” redefined to permit behavior (yielding) that would be considered failure under other loads. High Uncertainty Importance of Details In dealing with earthquakes we must contend with appreciable probabilities that failure will occur in the near future.  Otherwise, all the wealth of the world would prove …

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Foundation on Sand

A load take down has revealed that the characteristic load at the column positions is 3500 kN. A small site investigation has been undertaken and the following reported: medium dense sand from ground level to 30m depth a peak angle of shearing resistance of ?’p= 34o (c’ = 0) groundwater is at 2.0m depth average N below base …

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Foundation on Clay

A load take down has revealed that the characteristic load at the column positions is 3500 kN. A small site investigation has been undertaken and the following reported: clay from ground level to 30m depth an SPT trend equal to 22 + 2z (z = depth below ground level). average Plasticity Index value of 35% Consider a 1.2m deep …

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Water stop

Water stops are necessarily used in construction joints to prevent water from passing through concrete joints which leads to avoid corrosion in steel bars. In some cases, it is required to weld/overlap two or more water stoppers like in wall junctions. Types, sizes, colours, etc. are varying from supplier to another.

Types of offshore platforms

An oil platform is a large structure used to drill and produce oil and/or natural gas from the seas or oceans. Depending on the circumstances, the platform may be floating or an artificial island or attached to the ocean floor. A typical platform may have around thirty well heads located on the platform and directional drilling …

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