**The design must satisfy both strength and ductility. The ductility can be
ensured by proper detailing of reinforcement, bar cut-offs, splicing and joint
details. The following are the guide lines:**The structural layout should be
simple, regular and should avoid any offsets from beams to columns or columns
from floor to floor. Stiffness of columns should gradually change from floor to
floor.The tensile steel beam should be restricted and more compression
reinforcement should be provided. Compression reinforcement should be enclosed
by stirrups to avoid buckling.
The designer should aim to see that the inelasticity is restricted to beams only
and columns should remain elastic. To achieve this all beam-column joints should
obey the relation below,
? Mcolumn > 1.2 ? MbeamThe beams should have strong shear strength to avoid
non-ductile shear failure by providing sufficient shear reinforcement.At
sections of maximum moment in beams, closed stirrups or spirals will increase
the ductility of the members.
The columns should preferably have spiral reinforcement if the axial load
exceeds 0.4 times the balanced axial load of columns.
Sufficient splices and bar anchorages must be provided to prevent bond failures.
All the beam-column connection has to be monolithic.