Structural systems for residential and office buildings have evolved to

reflect their differing functional requirements.Office Tall Buildings:
�The need to satisfy differing requirements of tenants leads to the provision of
large column-free open areas to allow flexibility in constantly changing office

Improved levels of services frequently necessitate an entire floor devoted to
mechanical plant. However, this lost space can often be compensated by
accommodating deep girders or trusses connecting the exterior and interior
structural systems.

Earlier heavy internal partitions and masonry cladding, with their contributions
to the reserve of stiffness and strength, have given way to light removable
partitions and cubicles and glass curtain walls, forcing the basic structure
alone to provide the required strength and stiffness against both vertical and
lateral loads.

Large entrances and open lobby areas at ground level, multi-story atriums, and
high level restaurants and viewing galleries may require more sophisticated
elevator systems and multiple sky lobbies.

Residential Tall Buildings:
The basic function is the provision of self-contained individual dwelling units,
separated by substantial partitions that provide adequate fire and acoustical

Because the partitions are repeated from story to story, modern designs have
utilized them in a structural capacity.

This has led to the shear wall, cross wall, and in filled-frame methods of