The two primary types of vertical load resisting elements of tall buildings
are columns and walls.Walls may act either independently as shear walls, or in
assemblies as shear wall cores, around stairwells and elevators.
Columns will be provided in otherwise unsupported regions to transmit gravity
loads, and in some types of structures, lateral loads (wind and seismic).
Since the gravity loading on different floors tends to be similar, the weight of
the floor system per unit floor area is constant, regardless of building height.
Since the load on a column is cumulative of the floors above it, the weight of
column per unit area increases linearly with the building height.
The bending moments caused by lateral loads increase with at least the square of
building height, becoming more important as building height increases.